Speech Therapy

Speech Therapy

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Adult Speech and Language

Adults may experience speech and language difficulties for a variety of reasons. Information about specific types of speech and language differences and disorders, as well as conditions that cause them is included below.

Speech Disorders

  • Apraxia: Person has difficulty coordinating oral muscles to make a sound or sounds.
  • Dysarthria : It results from impaired movement of the muscles used for speech production, including the lips, tongue, vocal folds, and/or diaphragm. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected.
  • Stuttering : Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called “disfluencies.”
  • Voice : A voice disorder may be characterized by hoarseness, vocal fatigue, periodic loss of voice, or inappropriate pitch or loudness.

Language Disorders

Aphasia : It results from damage to the parts of the brain that contain language (typically in the left half of the brain). Individuals who experience damage to the right side of the brain may have additional difficulties beyond speech and language issues. Aphasia may causes difficulties in speaking, listening, reading, and writing, but does not affect intelligence.

Speech Therapy for Children.

Any speech, language, or feeding impairment can have far-reaching consequences, affecting every aspect of a child’s life, including learning, play, and interactions with family and friends. At The Accura Clinic, speech-language pathologists treat a variety of communication and feeding issues.

Speech

Children may have difficulty pronouncing words. There may be a variety of reasons, including:

  • Articulation Disorder:The child has a problem pronouncing a particular sound or a few sounds.
  • Phonological Disorder: The child has difficulty understanding the sound system itself and the speech rules.
  • Oral-Motor Deficits: The child shows deficits in strength and movement of the jaw, lips, tongue, and cheeks.
  • Apraxia: The child has difficulty coordinating oral muscles to make a sound or of sounds.
  • Stuttering: Disruptions or breaks in the smooth flow of speech.

Language

Language refers to the content of what is spoken, written, read, or understood. It is categorized into two areas: receptive and expressive language. Receptive language is the ability to comprehend someone else’s speech or gestures. Problems with receptive language may include difficulty understanding vocabulary, concepts, sequences, directions, and conversations. Expressive language is the ability to create a message that others will understand. A child who has difficulty expressing him or herself may be taught to utilize a variety of communication modes such as speech, manual sign, gestures, pictures, facial expressions, or communication devices. The speech-language pathologists will evaluate which mode is most effective for the child.

Pragmatic Language

Pragmatic language refers to how an individual socially uses language to communicate with others. Breakdowns in pragmatic language may include issues with the following skills: verbal turn-taking, maintaining a topic, listening to a conversational partner, using eye contact and facial expressions, taking the perspective of others, and expressing feelings in a socially appropriate manner.

Augmentative and Alternative Communication

Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is a system for communication of all forms, other than oral speech, that allows a person to express their thoughts, needs, ideas and wants. AAC could be an augmentative aid such as picture symbol system or an alternative communication system such as an electronic voice output device.
For a child or adult who has significant difficulty expressing their basic wants and needs or whose communication skills are not as advanced as their cognitive abilities, may benefit from an AAC device. Some common causes of significant expressive communication disorders include: cerebral palsy, autism, head injury, mental retardation, physical disabilities, Parkinson’s, ALS and stroke. Person’s affected by these disorders may benefit from some form of AAC.
At Accura Clinic, our speech-language pathologists work hard to help children and adults communicate to the best of their ability. We work closely with commercially available systems such iPad and iTouch. We are able to assess and give professional opinions on whether an augmentative and alternative communication system is appropriate for a client and what type of system would be best. An assessment at The Accura Clinic is the best way to determine which device would be appropriate for you or your loved one. A variety of systems including: picture symbols, programmable switches, voice output devices and dynamic displays are available for onsite trial at the time of the evaluation.

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